Time for a REST - How ServiceStack solved our mono woes

11 March 2012

We were about to abandon our Linux based project due to performance problems and memory leaks with mono ASP.NET and then we discovered ServiceStack.

We’re a start-up company of two and prefer developing in Linux using open-source software and libraries. This is also cost effective for the business since we have fewer licences to purchase, both on our own machines and any systems we sell. Additionally, remote management through SSH is a major advantage.

The short version

We have been developing an instrumentation system with a web application front-end. After spending a large amount of time battling memory leaks, stability and performance issues with the mono ASP.NET implementation we finally switched to ServiceStack which has resolved all of those problems.

A generic instrumentation system written in C♯

A while back Justen came up with the idea of developing a generic instrumentation system. Many industrial instruments are provided with their own specific software containing poorly designed interfaces or in some cases no software at all.

Our application consists of two parts:

  1. A daemon that is responsible for talking to the instruments.
  2. A browser interface that runs on a kiosk but is also available over the network, thereby allowing engineers to monitor and control individual instruments remotely if required.

The browser interface is mostly implemented in javascript with a C# server-side web application to provide the instrument readings, status and configuration information. The daemon application is also implemented in C#, since there are libraries available for communicating with serial ports and USB devices, meaning that we could share code with the web application.

The original design: MVC and NHibernate

A database would be used to provide the configuration of channels and instruments, it would also contain information about the instrument specific variables. These variables would be populated with data by the daemon and read by the web application which would also be able to “post” modifications back to the daemon where appropriate (variables that represent instrument settings, for example). The technologies used in the first design were as follows:

This design had many issues but probably the biggest flaw at the time was the use of the database to store the transient variable values read from the instruments. Not only was this a major bottleneck but it also caused constant disk access.

The second attempt: MVC3 and memory tables

When it came to the second version we foolishly thought that the way to solve the issue was to use memory tables in the database. This version also involved a major redesign of the javascript engine:

We moved the web application to MVC3 and after a lot of work produced components capable of rendering themselves from XML (instrumentation specific since it involves binding to instrument variables amongst other things).

Discovering problems by polling … a lot

The web application is rather unconventional as it involves a long running javascript engine polling the server at regular intervals (every 500ms or so) for both status information and variable readings. This uncovered some rather major memory leaks, especially when left running for days on end. For an instrumentation server this is no good, the application has to be able to run indefinitely without causing the system to eventually grind to a halt!

And thus began the tedious search for leaks…

Memory leaks and stability issues with System.Web under mono

We spent some time tracing the cause of the leaks, although that was nothing compared to the amount of time we’ve spent trying to prevent them, since they did not appear to originate in our code. The major culprit was traced back to System.Web and we submitted a bug report, but that has been open for over 6 months now.

A partial workaround was to completely disable sessions but we wanted to add authentication to parts of the application later on and so we also experimented with the MVC3 SessionState attribute which should have allowed us to disable sessions for most of the controllers. However, it would seem that there is some supporting functionality missing in mono so this attribute has no effect. Another bug report was submitted, but at the time of writing this post there had been no response.

We solved the authentication problem at the time by switching to a simple method of our own that stores tokens in a memory table which are referenced by cookies.

Even with a variety of workarounds we were still leaking when running through XSP and using the Boehm garbage collector, but with SGen the leaking seemed to stop. Even with SGen enabled, it still leaked when running through apache and mod_mono, therefore we started running our application through XSP and used mod_proxy to provide access to it.

Unfortunately that wasn’t the end of it since the application would randomly crash when using SGen, so we had the choice of a gradual leak with one GC or random crashing with the other. We also suspected that something in NHibernate was leaking, but it was hard to pinpoint. On top of all this, this web application would intermittently not start up properly with errors regarding duplicate keys in the role manager or object null exceptions.

The daemon, on the other hand, shared a lot of code with the web application and yet it seemed stable, was perfectly happy running under Boehm and did not leak memory.

Last year, when we first started discovering all of these problems Justen wrote about them and some of the interim solutions we found.

After a lot of time and effort we were about ready to either ditch the project entirely or resort to running it under the .NET framework. This would have been difficult for us to support since we develop in Linux, plus Windows licences would have been required for any kiosk/server units and all our work in setting up a kiosk image would have gone to waste. We would also lose the ability to simply SSH into the units remotely to configure or troubleshoot them when at our distributors.

The silver lining - ServiceStack

The switch to memory tables for the variable readings had stopped the constant disk access but had actually made the performance bottlenecks worse (it seems memory tables have some serious limitations). The solution was, of course, to use a memory caching system like memcached which would allow both our daemon and web application to access the information.

At this point we stumbled across ServiceStack and realised that we had inadvertently developed a RESTful application since the controllers in the MVC were simply acting as services for the javascript engine. Even though we could not really afford to spend more time on the project, we decided to take a week or two to attempt porting our application to ServiceStack and see if that resolved any of our issues.

As soon as we began porting to ServiceStack, things started looking up:

The only problem we found during the port was nothing to do with ServiceStack but an issue with how browsers handle asynchronous GET requests.

Major performance improvements and increased stability

Switching from memory tables to memcached for the storage of variable readings completely removed the bottleneck, thereby providing us with an order of magnitude increase in speed for those requests.

The entire application was running much faster, mostly thanks to the extremely efficient JSON serializer used by ServiceStack, and the memory leaks were massively reduced but not entirely eliminated. This may confirm our earlier suspicion that NHibernate might be leaking.

Fortunately ServiceStack also provides a very fast and extremely light-weight library called OrmLite. Having had some success with switching our application to ServiceStack we decided to take the plunge and rip out NHibernate, replacing it with OrmLite.

Now, I’m not keen on writing SQL and managed to avoid it completely by using NHibernate, but our database is not very complex and therefore the transition to OrmLite has not been too difficult. In fact, there are certain queries that I’ve been able to optimise very nicely compared to their NHibernate counterparts, further improving the speed of our service requests.

Leaky results?

Having only just completed the port there is still a fair amount of testing to do, but the results so far are promising. Both the daemon and REST application have been running for a few days now and neither appear to be showing signs of leaking memory!


Mono is a fantastic project bringing C# to all platforms, however we have been very disappointed with the lack of interest in solving what seems to be a rather critical bug in System.Web. Combined with the instability issues and lack of packages for debian/ubuntu we were considering giving up on mono altogether.

However, the excellent ServiceStack came to the rescue and has provided us with the means to continue developing our applications under mono on the platform we prefer. It’s just a shame we didn’t discover it earlier!